Shrink Resistance Definition
The transformation of fibers into fabrics involves many mechanical stresses and forces during manufacturing, including the next steps to convert the fiber into yarn with spiders and then fabrics with weaving and knitting. When the products are immersed in water, the water acts as a relaxing medium and all stresses and tensions are relaxed, trying to return to its original relaxed state. Even after finishing with sophisticated finishing machines, there remains a residual removal, which is transferred to the clothing stage. This residual shrinkage may lead to deformation or deformation of the products after domestic washing. For each product, there are certain acceptance limits of the degrees of withdrawal. Abnormal shrinkage levels are considered non-compliance with quality standards.  There are various physical and chemical methods to minimize residual tissue shrinkage. The composition and content determine the type and proportion of fibre. Natural fibers shrink more than synthetic fibers. Synthetic fibers are more stable due to their crystalline and thermoplastic nature.
They do not shrink, while natural fibers are more sensitive to shrinkage due to more amorphous regions in their fibrous structure, which allows greater water absorption, fiber swelling and increased lubricity increase the tendency to shrinkage. Mixed fabrics, which are usually synthetic and natural, are also considered more stable.  The available scales on the surface of the wool fibre are responsible for removing the felt. In the present study, a novel approach was investigated in which cellulose was made hydrophobic using a fluorocarbon polymer. Hydrophobic cellulose repels water and inhibits its penetration even in the amorphous range. This inhibits the movements of the inner polymer chain and the swelling of cotton fibers. This will lead to the development of shrink-resistant cotton textiles. Dimensional stability (in fabric) is the change in dimensions in textile products when they are washed or relaxed. The change is always expressed in relation to the dimensions before exposure to washing or relaxing.
Withdrawal is also called residual withdrawal and is measured as a percentage. The main cause of shrinkage is the relief of stresses and stresses that occur in manufacturing processes. Textile manufacturing is based on the conversion of fibers into yarn, yarn to fabric, including spinning, weaving or knitting, etc. The fabric undergoes many inevitable changes and mechanical forces during this journey. When the products are immersed in water, the water acts as a relaxing means, and all stresses are relaxed, and the fabric tries to return to its original state.  The dimensional stability of textile materials is an important quality parameter. Defective and unstable materials can lead to deformation of clothing or products.  Removal is tested at different stages, but mainly before cutting the fabric into other sewn products and after cutting and sewing before delivering the products to buyers and consumers.
It is a required parameter of quality control to ensure the size of products to avoid complaints about deformations or dimensional changes after washing at home.  Testing is performed with specifications indicated by buyers that mimic the same conditions such as wash cycle time, temperature and water ratio, and fabric load, and sometimes top-loading and front-loading washing machines are selected to authenticate the test and the safety of the results. This method provides standard and alternative domestic washing conditions with an automatic washing machine. Although the procedure includes several options, it is not possible to include all existing combinations of money laundering parameters. The test applies to all fabrics and finished products that are suitable for household washing. Comparison of chain shrinkage of untreated cotton (0 g/L) and fluorocarbon-treated cotton at 10 to 60 g/L. Warp removal of untreated and treated cotton The reduction of shrinkage by 50% and more (both in the warp and weft direction) is also possible after eight household washes compared to untreated cotton. The withdrawal of the firing direction is shown in Fig. 3 (removal of shot from untreated and fluorocarbon-treated cotton). The narrowing of the direction of fire became almost constant after 2 washes.
Untreated cotton showed a maximum shrinkage of 2.5% after 2 washes. However, fluorocarbon-treated cotton showed shrinkage of 0.5 to 1.0% at various concentrations of hydrofluorocarbons. This 0.5% shrinkage was probably due to the uneven load of the cotton fabric due to the uneven tension. A reduction of approximately 60% to 80% of shrinkage was observed in cotton fabric samples treated with different concentrations of hydrofluorocarbons. Crosslinking agents alter physical properties. The undesirable effect of crosslinking agents is that they reduce the elasticity and flexibility of cellulose fibers after reaction with the hydroxyl group of cellulose. Reducing the elasticity and flexibility of cellulose fibers results in low abrasion and tensile strength. Other disadvantages are: stiff touch, formaldehyde release, low lightfastness, color change after refinement, and an unpleasant fishy smell (Schindler and Hauser 2004).
The following two different chemical approaches have been used to produce pressed or shrink-resistant and swell-free, durable and swell-resistant cellulosic tissues. The first approach is to clog the pores of the fibers by incorporating a polymer finish. It inhibits water penetration. The second approach is the use of multifunctional reticulators. Multifunctional crosslinking agents react with hydroxyl groups of neighboring cellulose molecules and thus impede cellulose fibre swelling (Shahin et al. 2009; Lacasse and Baumann, 2004). Among cellulose fibers, cotton remains the most popular fiber due to its various benefits. Since cotton absorbs moisture easily, it is sensitive to shrinkage. Moisture is absorbed in the amorphous zone of the cotton, the water molecules then act as lubricants and help the movement of the internal polymer chains.
The movement of the internal polymer chains is facilitated by the interruption of the hydrogen bond between the polymer chains in the amorphous range. In order to reduce stress in a claimed cellulose fiber, the inner polymer chains of the amorphous regions move freely. The new hydrogen bonds are then formed in the inflated cellulose state in a new configuration in the amorphous range and locked after drying. Therefore, the wrinkled appearance of cellulosic tissue is preserved even after drying, unlike non-bulking synthetic fibers (Lam et al. 2011) and the tissue also shrinks (Schindler and Hauser 2004). Attempts have been made to develop shrinkage-resistant cotton textiles by making them hydrophobic. The cotton fabric was made hydrophobic by being treated with a fluorocarbon resin emulsion at different concentrations with a catalyst. Hydrophobicity was measured by performing a water-repellent test and determining the angle of contact with water. The air permeability of the cotton fabric was also determined and was not affected. Untreated and treated cotton fabric was subjected to repeated household washing conditions and shrinkage was measured.
In order to determine the influence of fluorocarbon treatment on fabrics, the physical properties of treated and untreated cotton fabrics were compared.